The external anal sphincter or sphincter ani externus is a flat plane of skeletal muscle fibers, elliptical in shape and intimately adherent to the skin surrounding the margin of the anus. In a considerable proportion of cases the fibers decussate in front of the anus, and are continuous with the superficial transverse perineal muscle. Posteriorly, they are not attached to the coccyx, but are continuous with those of the opposite side behind the anal canal. The upper edge of the muscle is ill-defined, since fibers are given off from it to join the levator ani.
Colonoscopy Measurements (cm) from Anal Verge
SEER Training: Colonoscopy Measurements (cm) from Anal Verge
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Normal female anal sphincter: difficulties in interpretation explained.
As the rectum passes through the pelvic diaphragm, it becomes continuous with the anal canal, which ends here at the anus. The lower end of the rectum runs downwards and forwards, the anal canal runs downwards and backwards. The angulation between the rectum and anal canal, the perineal flexure, is maintained by the forward pull of the puborectalis part of the levator ani muscle. Closure of the anal canal is maintained by the internal and external anal sphincter muscles.
Sphincter length was determined by the position of the puborectalis sling. Defects in the external anal sphincter were defined at each level and recorded in degrees. Cylindric longitudinal images of the endoanal scans were created by a three-dimensional-representation software package. Manometry was performed by a pull-through technique. The mean age was 39 years for males and